Operating system are classified as below based on the activity that it does. Operating system types are as follows.
1. Batch Operating System
2. Time-sharing Operating Systems
3. Distributed Operating System
4. Network Operating System
5. Real-Time Operating System
Batch Operating System
It is one of the operating system type where the users of a batch do not interact with computer directly. Each users prepares his job on an offline device and submits to the computer operator. To speed up processing, jobs with similar needs are batched together and run as a group.
* Lack of interaction between the user and the job.
* CPU is often idle, because the speed of the mechanical I/O devices is slower than the CPU.
* Difficult to provide the desired priority.
Time-sharing Operating Systems
Time-sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time. Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming. Processor’s time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing. The main difference between Multi programmed Batch Systems and Time-Sharing Systems is that in case of Multiprogrammed batch systems, the objective is to maximize processor use, whereas in Time-Sharing Systems, the objective is to minimize response time.
Advantages of Timesharing operating systems
* Provides the advantage of quick response
* Avoids duplication of software
* Reduces CPU idle time
Disadvantages of Time-sharing operating systems are as follows:
* Problem of reliability
* Question of security and integrity of user programs and data
* Problem of data communication
Distributed Operating System
Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real-time applications and multiple users. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors accordingly.
The advantages of distributed systems
* With resource sharing facility, a user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another.
* Speedup the exchange of data with one another via electronic mail.
* If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can potentially continue operating.
* Better service to the customers.
* Reduction of the load on the host computer.
* Reduction of delays in data processing.
Network Operating System
A Network Operating System runs on a server and provides the server the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks. Siliconhouse provides various operating system like centos,windows in their dedicated servers.
The advantages of network operating systems
* Centralized servers are highly stable.
* Security is server managed.
* Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily integrated into the system.
* Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and types of systems.
The disadvantages of network operating systems
* High cost of buying and running a server.
* Dependency on a central location for most operations.
* Regular maintenance and updates are required
Real-Time Operating System
A real-time system is defined as a data processing system in which the time interval required to process and respond to inputs is so small that it controls the environment. The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is termed as the response time.
There are two types of real-time operating systems.
Hard real-time systems : Hard real-time systems guarantee that critical tasks complete on time. In hard real-time systems, secondary storage is limited or missing and the data is stored in ROM. In these
systems, virtual memory is almost never found.
Soft real-time systems: Soft real-time systems are less restrictive. A critical real-time task gets priority over other tasks and retains the priority until it completes. Soft real-time systems have limited utility than hard real-time systems. For example, multimedia, virtual reality, Advanced Scientific Projects like undersea exploration and planetary rovers, etc.